Diabetes insipidus – Symptoms, Causes and Treatments



Diabetes insipidus is a condition characterized by large amounts of dilute urine and increased thirst. The amount of urine produced can be nearly 2 liters per day. Reduction of fluid has little effect on the concentration of the urine. There are four types of diabetes insipidus, each with a different set of causes. 1. Central Diabetes Insipidus Central Diabetes Insipidus is a neurogenic disease where the hypothalamus in the brain does not make any anti-diuretic hormone, which is also known as vasopressin. This hormone is stored in the posterior pituitary of the mind until it is used in the kidneys for reabsorption of water. Anti-diuretic hormone controls the concentration of urine that is excreted from the body, but if it is not made, our bodies cannot reabsorb water so that we will produce very dilute urine. This acquired disorder can be caused by trauma to the brain or is idiopathic. Patients present dehydrated with excessive thirst and urination. Treatment is a replacement of the hormone with artificial Desmopressin. 2. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus is a pathological disorder where the receptors at the collecting tubules in the kidneys do not respond to anti-diuretic hormone. This problem prevents the kidneys from concentrating urine, causing the release of very dilute urine. Patients present with excessive thirst and urination, causing severe dehydration. Causes of this acquired disease can be lithium use or electrolyte imbalance. This condition can be treated with low sodium and low protein diet, as well as with diuretics, such as Hydrochlorothiazide and Amiloride. 3. Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus
Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is similar to other manifestations of this disorder, especially in regards to neurogenic versions. It causes extreme thirst, which creates an increased fluid intake. This creates an excessive need to urinate because of the high fluid levels. It is characterized by low levels of vasopressin within the blood plasma and high levels of plasma osmolality. Treating dipsogenic diabetes insipidus usually involves diuretic therapy. What distinguishes this version of diabetes insipidus from others is that during the treatment period, the body's need for water intake decreases less rapidly than the excretion of water from the body. Because of this, most patients who are being treated for dipsogenic diabetes insipidus will experience low sodium levels and a lack of water balance. 4. Gestational diabetes insipidus Gestational diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that happens in pregnancy, usually in the third trimester. This condition can make you so thirsty you drink many glasses of water a day. As a result, you might go to the bathroom more than once or twice an hour. This isn't a result of pregnancy but of diabetes insipidus, which is sometimes called "water" diabetes. The doctor may opt not to treat gestational diabetes insipidus. If that's the case, he will likely ask you to come to the office a lot. He will make sure your body doesn't retain too much fluid. You'll also need to keep liquids with you, so you don't get dehydrated. There is no cure for diabetes insipidus. But you can work with your doctor to manage the symptoms of this condition. Medicine can help prevent constant thirst and excessive urination that comes with this condition. Preventing these symptoms will add a great deal to your quality of life.

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